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Chronic Granulomatous Disease

Overview

Chronic granulomatous disease is a disease in which cells of the immune system (phagocytes) does not function properly. They are unable to form the reactive oxygen compounds that are used to kill certain fungi and bacteria. This eventually leads to chronic (long term) and recurrent infections in the various body organs. The disease is rare as 1 out of 200000 people are affected from the disease every year in Unite States. Some of the alternative names of the disease are chronic granulomatous disease of childhood, CGD, fatal granulomatosis of childhood and progressive septic granulomatosis


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Causes

Chronic granulomatous disease can be caused by several disorders like inherited genetic disorder, hereditary nephritis, IgA nephropathy, autoimmune disorders, infections, etc. However, in many cases it becomes difficult to identify the cause of the disorder.


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Signs & Symptoms

It is necessary to disclose that the condition cause subtle or mild symptoms. And in some cases, it may happen that the symptoms go unnoticed for a long period of time. Some of the common symptoms of the disorder are:

  • Skin infections like impetigo, eczema, abscesses, etc.
  • Persistent diarrhea
  • Pneumonia
  • joint infections
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck
  • Visual disturbances
  • Decreased appetite
  • Difficulty in breathing
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Prevention

If you have a family history of chronic granulomatous disease and planning to start a family, then genetic counselling is recommended. 


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Treatments
Bone Marrow Transplant Modern Medicine

Infections like prophylactically, etc are treated successfully with antibiotics. Antibiotics are administered on the daily basis as they help in decreasing the frequency of the infections. Severe infections are treated with interferon-gamma. And if the disorder leads to formation of abscesses, then surgery like bone marrow transplantation is performed for treating the condition.

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